Investigating the Influence of Student Engagement on Academic Resilience, Well-being, Personality, and Educational Attainment in Online Classes with Tencent Meeting Application among University Students in China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach | BMC Psychology


The rapid development of online learning platforms has become a significant trend in higher education worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated the shift towards online learning, with many universities adopting online teaching and learning as the primary mode of instruction [1]. In response to this rapid change, it is crucial to examine the factors that contribute to students’ success in online classes. Academic resilience, student engagement, academic well-being, and personality type have been identified as important factors that contribute to students’ academic success in traditional classroom settings [2,3,4,5]. Student engagement reflects the degree of involvement, interest, and motivation students have in their learning [6]. Academic well-being encompasses students’ emotional and psychological well-being in relation to their academic experiences [7]. However, little research has been done on the role of these factors in online learning environments, particularly with respect to the Tencent Meeting application in China. Understanding the factors that contribute to academic success in online classes can inform the development of effective online learning strategies and support students’ academic achievement. Additionally, personality traits such as extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement [8].

The rapid transition to online learning platforms in higher education has become a significant trend worldwide, and the COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated this shift. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the factors that contribute to students’ academic success in online classes [1]. While academic resilience, learner enjoyment, and academic well-being have been identified as important factors in traditional classroom settings, their role in online learning environments is not yet fully understood [3,4,5,6,7]. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which these factors contribute to academic success in online classes, particularly in the context of the Tencent Meeting application in China. Additionally, the unique challenges posed by the pandemic, such as social isolation, financial difficulties, and health concerns, make it necessary to explore these factors to develop effective online learning strategies and support students’ academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that contribute to academic success in online classes and understand their role in the context of the pandemic and the Tencent Meeting application in China.

The rapid transition to online learning platforms in higher education has become a significant trend worldwide, and the COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated this shift. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the factors that contribute to students’ academic success in online classes [1]. While academic resilience, learner enjoyment, and academic well-being have been identified as important factors in traditional classroom settings, their role in online learning environments is not yet fully understood [3,4,5,6,7]. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which these factors contribute to academic success in online classes, particularly in the context of the Tencent Meeting application in China. Additionally, the unique challenges posed by the pandemic, such as social isolation, financial difficulties, and health concerns, make it necessary to explore these factors to develop effective online learning strategies and support students’ academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that contribute to academic success in online classes and understand their role in the context of the pandemic and the Tencent Meeting application in China.

The present study aims to delve into the intricate interplay between various key factors affecting university students’ academic experience within the context of online education facilitated by the Tencent Meeting application in China. With the growing prevalence of online classes, understanding the dynamics that contribute to students’ academic resilience, academic well-being, and ultimately, their educational attainment has become crucial. By focusing on the mediating role of student engagement, this research seeks to bridge the gap in existing literature by shedding light on how individual traits interact with the virtual learning environment and impact students’ ability to adapt, persevere, and thrive academically. The findings hold the potential to provide educators, institutions, and policymakers with valuable insights into designing effective online learning strategies, support systems, and interventions tailored to the diverse personalities of students, ultimately enhancing the overall quality of online education in China and potentially beyond.

Academic resilience, educational attainment

The concept of resilience has gained increasing attention with the emergence of positive psychology and positive organizational behavior [9, 10]. This trend is also observed in the university context, where research often focuses on disadvantaged groups and their connection to well-being [11]. Resilience is closely related to concepts like perseverance, grit, and coping, which have been extensively studied in educational settings. While both resilience and grit involve perseverance, resilience is characterized by a positive response and adaptation to challenges and adversity, whereas grit is defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals [12].

Studies have shown that perseverance, coping, and grit are all linked to academic achievement [13, 14]. Resilience has been found to correlate with academic achievement in general student populations, including primary and secondary education [15]. Moreover, in a few studies investigating the relationship between resilience and academic achievement in tertiary education, resilience has been positively associated with factors such as grades and learning performance [16]. However, there is a lack of empirical research specifically exploring the link between resilience and study progress.

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Personality traits, as represented by the Big Five model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), have been extensively examined in relation to both resilience and academic achievement. Neuroticism tends to have a negative influence on study progress, while agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness are generally associated with positive outcomes [14]. Openness, for instance, is related to cognitive intellect and the ability to analyze and understand experiences, which aids in positive adaptation and learning [17]. Conscientious students are known for their organizational skills and tendency to develop structured action plans when facing challenges [18]. Agreeableness and extraversion are associated with social skills and the establishment of social support networks, which contribute to resilience [19]. Emotional stability, characterized by being relaxed and self-confident, is positively related to resilience and the experience of positive emotions [20, 21]. Positive emotions have been found to broaden individuals’ mindsets and expand their repertoire of actions and resources, which aids in bouncing back from challenging conditions and maintaining focus on academic progress [4].

Students’ personality and academic attainment

Students’ personality, defined as enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, significantly influences their academic achievement [22]. The Big Five personality framework, encompassing Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism, is commonly used to categorize personality traits [23]. Among these traits, Conscientiousness and Openness have demonstrated particular relevance to academic achievement [24]. Conscientiousness involves self-regulation, achievement-striving, and organization. High levels of Conscientiousness are associated with greater effort investment in homework and fewer counterproductive academic behaviors [25]. Consistently, Conscientiousness exhibits a correlation of approximately 0.25 with academic achievement across diverse studies and educational contexts [26].

Openness is linked to adaptive learning approaches and motivation. Individuals high in Openness actively seek out learning opportunities and prefer intellectually stimulating environments, contributing to their intellectual development [27]. Meta-analytic findings indicate a modest correlation of around 0.12 between Openness and academic achievement at the secondary school level. The impact of the remaining Big Five traits on academic achievement is less consistent. Higher levels of Neuroticism can lead to anxiety and worry, potentially diverting attention from academic tasks [28]. Extraversion, although it may provide energy for learning, can also result in distractions and a preference for socializing over studying [29]. Agreeableness may benefit academic performance due to cooperative behavior and compliance with instructions [29]. However, the associations between these traits and academic achievement tend to be nonsignificant or close to zero. Considering the bidirectional relationship between academic achievement, intelligence, and personality is crucial. Academic success or failure can influence the development of identity and personality maturity in adolescents, potentially reinforcing achievement-related behaviors and personality traits such as Conscientiousness and Openness [30].

Students’ engagement and personality types

Research has predominantly focused on engagement as a predictor of objective outcomes such as achievement and grades rather than on engagement itself as the outcome. Given the negative relations found between engagement and outcomes such as burnout [31], there is a pressing need for research that directly examines the individual differences correlates of engagement. Hence, the present study explores the role of students’ “Big-5” personality traits [32] on their engagement. Big-5 or “the Five Factor Model” of personality [FFM] has been accepted as the dominant model for categorizing individual differences in personality [33]. The FFM suggests that individual differences in behavior should be classified in terms of five independent traits, namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and imagination [34].

The role of personality in academic achievement is well-documented [35]. In particular, conscientiousness has consistently and positively been correlated with exam and essay performance [36], whereas neuroticism has been found to be a negative predictor of academic performance [37] and examination performance [38]. Academic performance more generally has been associated with agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience [25]. Although the literature has yielded ambiguous results in regard to extraversion [39], the relationship between FFM and achievement is relatively well-documented [25]. Nevertheless, the role of the FFM in student engagement has yet to be studied in depth. Additionally, previous research has typically examined the role of personality on proxies of engagement such as retention [40], academic performance [41], and learning approaches [42]. Support comes from a study by Komarraju and Karau [43] who reported that the traits of extraversion and openness to experience were related to engagement. Limited research has found a link between agreeableness and engagement per se [44], but this does not appear to have been replicated, possibly due to differences in the operationalization of engagement [45]. Interestingly, research suggests that agreeableness may be related to the emotional regard a student has toward studying. Critically, these findings indicate the importance of examining a multidimensional model of engagement. In an effort to enhance our theoretical understanding of the nature of engagement, the present study examines the relationship between personality and a multidimensional model of engagement.

Students’ engagement and educational attainment

Students’ engagement is a crucial aspect to consider when assessing teaching in a digital environment [46]. While some researchers define engagement based on perspectives and principles regarding the importance of learning, others view it as going beyond the minimum effort required [46]. An analysis of digital learning publications revealed that approximately half of the studies mentioned the term “engagement” [47]. However, the research directly linking engagement to digital learning is limited and exceptional in some cases.

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Several scientists have proposed a multidimensional model of engagement [48], which encompasses behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects [49]. Behavioral engagement relates to involvement, persistence, and participation in academic activities [46]. Emotional engagement focuses on positive and negative reactions to peers, professors, institutions, and the evaluation of learning outcomes. Cognitive engagement involves students’ investment and understanding of the topic, encompassing thoughtfulness and willingness to exert effort to comprehend complex ideas and master difficult skills [46].

The academic engagement has numerous long-term positive effects, including pursuing higher education, maintaining consistent learning patterns, improving job prospects, fostering positive self-perception and well-being, and reducing depressive symptoms [50, 51]. Thus, participation in academic activities can yield positive and wide-ranging outcomes beyond the educational setting. The academic engagement has also been found to be strongly associated with academic motivation and performance, as students who engage in academic activities tend to rate their studies higher, achieve higher scores, and report lower levels of academic disengagement and avoidance [51].

Log records from electronic learning management systems can provide independent and related data, such as the frequency of student logins. While log files have been studied for various purposes, their use in analyzing interactions and engagement has been relatively scarce. Recently, researchers such as Gobert, Baker, and Wixon [52] have developed procedures to identify engagement in online learning environments for investigating scientific questions. However, alternative methods like interviews have their advantages. Interviews can provide comprehensive information about why students choose to participate or not in specific events, why there are variations in communication performance among students, and the contextual factors that may influence student engagement or disengagement [53]. Considering that each method of measurement has its strengths and weaknesses, it is advisable to employ multiple techniques to assess students’ engagement, as recommended by several academics [54]. It is worth noting that the availability of an electronic educational platform, including necessary resources and a user-friendly interface, plays a significant role in motivating students and enhancing their engagement. An electronic educational platform that offers convenience and engaging content can effectively promote student engagement. Engagement has garnered attention in recent years as a key factor in academic success. Positive emotions are believed to indirectly influence academic outcomes through motivational processes like engagement [55]. Engagement is closely associated with motivational processes and is considered a crucial factor in achieving academic goals. Interested students tend to invest more effort in academic tasks, leading to successful task completion and improved academic performance. In work environments, engagement is described as a state of mind characterized by energy, dedication, and absorption [56]. Energy reflects high levels of mental activity during work, dedication refers to a sense of worth, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge, while absorption entails complete concentration and satisfaction with one’s work, causing time to pass quickly. This concept has also been applied in a scholarly context, focusing on students’ tasks and activities [56]. Engaged students feel energized, passionate about their studies, and actively involved in their academic life [56]. Empirical evidence supports the notion that engaged university students perform better academically [57]. Experimental designs have also demonstrated a positive relationship between engagement and academic performance [57].

Students’ academic resilience and engagement

Nurmala et al. [58] emphasized that the uncertainty associated with changes in learning methods can act as a stressor for students [58]. This has been evident during the Covid-19 pandemic, where students have experienced academic stressors due to shifts in learning methods, leading to decreased learning motivation and reduced student engagement [59]. Continuous transitions and uncertainties pose challenges for students and can negatively impact their engagement in the learning process. To navigate these changes and challenges, students require resilience, as it enables them to skillfully adapt and cope with academic stress [60, 61].

Resilience plays a significant role in enhancing the quality of education and overall personal growth across various disciplines [62]. It is a dynamic characteristic that can change over time as individuals interact with their environment and undergo personal development [63]. Resilience encompasses three fundamental aspects: the ability to adapt and change as needed, the capacity to bounce back quickly from challenges or setbacks, and the capability to maintain confidence and strength in the face of change [64].

In higher education, students are expected to take responsibility for building their academic skills independently. However, many students still rely on others in their educational journey. Students encounter various problems and difficulties related to their academics, and their ability to effectively handle these challenges varies. Students who struggle to solve problems may experience negative emotions and be more susceptible to stress. It is crucial for students to recognize their inner capabilities, take ownership of their academic responsibilities, and develop problem-solving skills. Academic resilience serves as a protective factor that equips students to survive in difficult conditions, overcome adversity, and adapt positively to academic pressures and demands [63].

Sari et al. [65] explain that academically resilient students effectively navigate setbacks, challenges, adversity, and pressure within an academic context. Resilient students demonstrate a positive attitude when faced with obstacles [65]. Research supports the notion that individuals with resilience exhibit positive emotions when confronting various situations. In the post-pandemic era, it is essential for students to adapt to new conditions, overcome unwanted situations, and effectively address learning challenges, ultimately becoming problem solvers in their educational journey [66].

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Academic resilience is characterized by a student’s ability to withstand academic difficulties and maintain optimism, positive thinking, and problem-solving skills. It reflects an individual’s strength and tenacity to overcome negative emotional experiences in the face of significant obstacles encountered during the learning process [67, 68]. Students with high academic resilience embrace challenges as opportunities to prove themselves as active learners in the college environment [69].

Academic Well-being, and educational attainment

Academic well-being is a holistic measure of students’ academic experiences, including their sense of belonging, satisfaction with school, and engagement in learning. It has been identified as an important factor that contributes to students’ academic success [70]. Educational attainment refers to the level of education that an individual has achieved and is often used as a measure of academic success. This review of literature aims to explore the relationship between academic well-being and educational attainment and to identify the factors that contribute to this relationship. Academic well-being seems to be positively associated with educational attainment. A study by Suldo, Shaunessy, and Hardesty [71] found that students who reported higher levels of academic well-being, including positive emotions, high academic self-concept, and supportive relationships, also had higher grades and test scores. Similarly, a study by Salmela-Aro and Upadyaya [72] found that students who reported higher levels of academic well-being were more likely to complete secondary education and pursue higher education. Several factors have been identified as contributing to the relationship between academic well-being and educational attainment. One of the primary factors is social support, or the extent to which students feel supported by parents, teachers, and peers in their academic pursuits. Students who have high levels of social support are more likely to develop academic well-being and achieve academic success [70]. Additionally, a positive school climate, characterized by high expectations, supportive relationships, and opportunities for engagement, has been found to promote academic well-being and educational attainment [70]. Furthermore, student motivation, particularly intrinsic motivation, has been found to be positively associated with academic well-being and educational attainment [71]. Finally, academic self-concept, or the belief in one’s academic abilities, has been found to be a critical factor that contributes to academic well-being and educational attainment [73, 74].

Well-being and engagement

The transition to online learning presents challenges for students’ well-being and engagement, leading to a decline in their academic performance [75]. Student engagement is influenced by social interactions in various learning spaces, including interactions with peers and academic staff. However, the shift to online learning during the pandemic posed difficulties for both students and academic staff in adapting to this new context [75]. Research has extensively examined the impact of the pandemic on students’ well-being and engagement, highlighting the alarming decrease in student engagement across academic contexts [76, 77]. In fact, a significant number of students have reported that low engagement during online lectures negatively affected their learning experience [75]. It is crucial to recognize the importance of student engagement in online learning, as emphasized by various studies [78,79,80]. As universities increasingly offer online and hybrid courses, there is a growing need for research that investigates student engagement in the online learning environment.

Academic engagement is a complex and multidimensional concept that defies a single definition [81]. It has been examined using various international scales and from different perspectives [80]. Academic engagement is considered a key factor influencing learning and academic success in the university context. According to Marôco et al. [82], student engagement is associated with physical and psychological energy during educational experiences. High levels of engagement contribute to positive well-being, reduced dropout rates, and lower risk of burnout [82]. It is also linked to student self-efficacy [83]. Engaged students demonstrate a sense of purpose, persistence, resilience, and emotional connection to others in learning environments, experiencing a sense of belonging and high self-efficacy [84]. Therefore, student engagement is a dynamic and multidimensional construct that evolves over time within an individual’s self-determination [85]. Importantly, interventions can positively influence student engagement, leading to improved performance and reduced dropout rates [85]. Based on the above-mentioned related studies, the conceptual model is given in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Hypothetical structural modeling of the dependent, independent, and moderating variables

In line with the above hypothetical framework, the following hypotheses were stated:

  • H1 = The structural model of academic resilience, personality, and academic well-being on educational attainment with the mediating variable of learner has goodness of fit.

  • H2 = Academic resilience has a significant effect on educational attainment.

  • H3 = Academic resilience has a significant effect on student engagement.

  • H3 = Academic resilience has a significant indirect effect on educational attainment through the mediating variable of engagement.

  • H4 = Students’ personality has a significant effect on educational attainment.

  • H5 = Students’ personality has a significant effect on student engagement.

  • H6 = Students’ personality has a significant indirect effect on educational attainment through the mediating variable of engagement.

  • H7 = Students’ well-being has a significant effect on educational attainment.

  • H8 = Students’ well-being has a significant effect on student engagement.

  • H9 = Students’ well-being has a significant indirect effect on educational attainment through the mediating variable of engagement.

  • H10 = Student engagement has a significant effect on the student’s educational attainment.

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